This book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Security and Protection Against CBRN Threats” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, September 2019. It gives a broad overview on this topic as it combines articles addressing the preparation and characterization of different nanoscaled materials (metals, oxides, glasses, polymers, carbon-based, etc.) in the form of nanowires, nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanodots, thin films, etc. and contributions on their applications in diverse security and safety related fields. In addition, it presents an interdisciplinary approach drawing on the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology know-how of authors from Physics, Chemistry, Engineering, Materials Science and Biology. A further plus-point of the book, which represents the knowledge of experts from over 20 countries, is the combination of longer papers introducing the background on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting specific applications in different security areas.